Glossary

Codes\Abbreviation

Good writers adhere to good usage of grammar and accurate sentences not merely to abide by a bunch of rules, but because to do otherwise is not effective. Grammatically inaccurate sentences confuse readers and detract from writer credibility. Regardless of how well you write, if there are too many sentence errors your writing will suffer greatly!
 
Students in Eng 121 are expected to know Basic Grammatical Requirements.
To be an effective writer become familiar and adhere to them. They are explained throughout this Glossary.

      Guide to understanding codes, sentence mechanics, making corrections, and enhancing writing
     
When assignments are returned, they will have many comments on them. Often these comments will be brief codes\abbreviations  that indicate where a
      sentence error has been made.

  • This Glossary explains the codes\abbreviations on your returned work and provides explanation of them, shows how to make corrections, and gives examples

codes explanations - examples - corrections
A
adj\adv
error
Adjective (adj)
used to modify a noun
   ex: I ran a difficult  race
                   adj       noun

Adverb (adv) (generally end in "ly"
used to modify a verb 
   ex: I ran well yesterday.
           V   adv
used to modify an adverb
   ex: I ran extremely well yesterday
           V       adv      adv
used to modify an adjective
    ex: It was a terribly difficult race.
                       adv      adj      noun
AB
abstract
Abstract (click link for info)
AD
don't advertise

Don't explain what you are going to do; just do it

example 1 of AD
In conclusion, it seems apparent that cats make good pets.
correction
Cats make good pets.

example 2 of AD
As I will explain in this essay, cats make good pets.
correction
Cats make good pets.

example 3 of AD
As was proven by the facts presented above, cats make good pets.
correction
Cats make good pets.

Anonymous
nameless assignment
An assignment was submitted without a name.
  • A nameless essay cannot be graded because I do not know whose rubric to use.
  • A Shorter Writing cannot be graded because I do not where to input the grade.

    To correct this problem & possibly get a grade
    Notify me (Prof. B) of this problem immediately with the following information.
    Name, Section, Assignment, Anonymous # you have been given.
    ex:
    Name:  Mary Smith
    Section: IN1
    Assignment: Shorter Writing 1
    Anonymous 1

    I will get to it when I have time - keep checking your grades to be sure it appears.
APOV
author's point of view
express the point of view the author (you the student writer) has about the topic.
they are your opinions, thoughts, and perspectives about a topic

  ex: Writing an essay is easy if all the techniques are understood and applied to it..
            topic                                        APOV
       
Succumbing to peer pressure in high school can have long lasting effect that extend well into adulthood.
                           topic                                                               APOV
        
After being elected to the highest office in the U.S,
President Reagan learned to be a great leader.
                                  APOV                                              
 topic                   APOV
note:

      MI = topic + APOV of a paragraph
Thesis = topic + APOV of an entire essay.
Art
article
error
Article is missing or incorrectly used
Articles are generally used to introduce nouns. There are 2 basic article.
  A = nonspecific article - introduces nouns not specified - could be any one -generally speaking
   ex: A cat is a good pet
The = specific article - introduces a specifically named noun.
   ex: When I went to the school next to the candy store, I got lost
AV
active voice
You could probably use more active voice.
Active voice = does action = usually the more direct and effective way to write
ex: The committee voted on the bill.
Passive voice = receives action = usually less effective and direct
ex: The bill was voted on by the committee.
Awk
awkward
This sentence or group of words is awkwardly constructed. It may have numerous errors that overlap or simply not have any meaning. There is probably a much better way to say it
BS
Brainstorm
This is a general term that refers to the activity of exploring a topic before writing about it. Before writing it is advised to gather much information about a topic. Think on paper. Do not limit thoughts, and jot down anything that will stimulate more thought. Without doing this activity, a writer is basically writing without any knowledge of a topic. There are several ways to do this.
Brainstorming
  
explore - write for a specified amount of time - gather all you can - think of what makes your topic unique
   ex: written phrases, words, sentences, symbols, pictures, anything that will help you learn about your topic
Free writing
 
 put pen to paper (or fingers to keyboard) and simply write
   ex: paragraph form
Clustering  
  
group items that are in your brainstorm and then brainstorm on each one - this is very helpful when writing an
   essay that requires several MI to support a Thesis.
   ex: Let's say you are writing about someone you admire - your mother.
        Do a short preliminary brainstorm of what you know about her. Think of larger areas that make her who
        she is. Perhaps all you briefly wrote down seems to fall into 3 categories: Personality, Determination, &
        Attitude. Now do 3 separate BS on each: one BS for personality - one BS for determination - one BS for
        attitude. Each will contribute towards comprise a MI in your essay. Now you have 3 MI already for your
        essay. All together they will help you create a Thesis.
Cap
capital
error
used for the first word of a sentence
   ex: Bob is a good dancer.
used for Proper Nouns (names of a particular noun)
   ex: Tom, Middlesex County College, Virginia
used for first person pronoun
  ex:I went to the store
CC
coordinating conjunction
error
Coordinating Conjunctions (CC) are those little words that are commonly used to join thoughts within a sentence: and, but, so, for, nor, yet.
They are used to coordinate items in a list.
  
ex: John went to the store and bough apples, pears, and bananas. (note comma usage)
They are used to coordinate thoughts within a sentence, not between them. see: clauses
   To begin a sentence with a CC is basically using them to join the sentence it begins with  to the sentence  
   that came before it. This is not their purpose.
   ex of incorrect usage.
  
My father is a tough man. And he is a good provider for our family.                               
   Correction
   My father is a tough man, and he is a good provider for our family.
                       MC           ,  cc  MC  
Clauses

 

Clauses are groups of words in a sentence that make thoughts (some complete; some not) They create complexity and variety in sentence structure. There are 2 types of clause: MC (Main Clause) & DC (Dependent Clause). To avoid reader confusion, they must be punctuated and \or coordinated correctly.
To be an interesting writer, use clauses in a variety of ways as exemplified below.

MC (Main Clause)
S + V  = CT
ex: Mike went to the store
       S +  V = CT  
DC (Dependent Clause)
S + V = no CT
ex: Because Mike went to the store
                    S  +  V = no CT
  S = subject
  V =  verb
CT = complete thought
CC = coordinating conjunction
         (and, but, so, for, yet)
SC = subordinating conjunction
        (henceforth, however although, etc…

        When using 2 or more clauses in a sentence punctuate\coordinate as follows:

       MC;MC (used when the 2nd MC explains the first)
        ex: It is very cold today; the weather is well below freezing
             MC                        ; MC

       
MC,cc MC
        ex: Mike went to the store, and Mary stayed home.
             MC                            , cc  MC

        MC; sc, MC
        ex:  Mike went to the store; however, Mary stayed home.
               MC                          ;    sc      ,  MC

        DC, MC
        ex: Because Mike went to the store, Mary stayed home
             DC                                          , MC

        MC DC
        ex: Mary stayed home because Mike went to the store.
             MC                      DC

 

 

Coherence Coherence (click link for info)
Com
comma
error
There are basically 10 situations in which a comma is used. If you are going to insert a comma, know why you are using it. This list indicates correct comma usage.

used to separate Main Clauses (MC) in a sentences.  (cc = coordinating conjunction)
  
MC, cc MC
   ex: Bob ran, but Jane walked to the store.  (note: the comma must precede the cc (but))
         MC      , cc  MC
used to separate a Dependant Clause (DC) when it comes before a MC
  
DC, MC 
    ex: Because I was late, I was not allowed to take the test.
           DC                      , MC
     * no comma is needed when the MC comes before the DC.
       ex: I was not allowed to take the test because I was late.
             MC                                            DC
used to separate more than 2 items in a list
 
ex: It was a small, dingy, and cold room  (note comma goes before and)
used for a command  - to separate the MC
 
ex: John, go to the store.
                     MC
used or the first in a list
 
ex: First, clean the car thoroughly.
For non essential modifying phrases (not needed to complete the thought - just adds to it)
  ex:
Frank, the guy in the back row, constantly disrupts the class
                    nonessential phrase
   * no comma is necessary for essential phrases (those that are needed to complete the meaning)
     ex: Any student who doesn't do the work will fail. (no comma with necessary phrases)
                                 essential phrase  
used for an infinitive
 
 ex: to do well on a test, you must study diligently.
 
          infinitive 
used to set off quotations
 
 ex:
Mary said, "Seth is a good guy."
used for addresses
  
ex:
Mary lives at 427, Vette Avenue, Perth Amboy, New Jersey 07002
used to separate a MC when it follows a prepositional phrase
  
ex:
Soon after, 
   * no comma is needed if the MC comma first.
     ex: She left for the conference soon after
Con
conclusion
Ending an essay memorably
Conclusions (click link for info)
CS
concluding sentence
This is a sentence that wraps up a paragraph and often can be used as a transition to the next paragraph. Do not leave reader's hanging. Make a good end to every paragraph.
Unity (click link for info)
CSP
comma
spiced
sentence
error
CSP = Two MC in the same sentence separated by a comma (basically the same error as a Run-on)
Before learning RO,
see: clauses. ,
Comma, ccParts of Speech for cc & sc.
 
ex of CSP : John loves Stephanie,  he thinks she is a wonderful woman.                                            
                            MC                ,                 MC.

Corrections 
using proper punctuation and\or coordination with 2 or more MC in one sentence..
You can use as many MC in a sentence as you want as long as you punctuate and\or coordinate them correctly.

MC,cc MC.
 John loves Stephanie , but she doesn't love him.
             
MC              ,  cc            MC.
 

DC , MC. = Because John loves Stephanie, she is flattered.
                                   DC                         ,   MC.

MC DC = John loves Stephanie because she is a wonderful woman.
                                   MC         DC.

MC ; MC = John loves Stephanie; he is going to ask for her hand in marriage.
                                    MC       ;     MC.

MC;sc.MC. = John loves Stephanie; however, she doesn't love him.
                                  MC            ;     sc    ,          MC.
Dev
development
Development
Concrete support for Main Ideas (MI)

Development (click link for info)

DM
dangling
modifier

 

A group of words that is intended to modify something but doesn't.
ex:  Running around all day, Jake's feet were tired.  
                 DM
 (note: whatever follows the modifier is the object of it - Jake's feet were not Running around all day.
correction:
Add something being modified  
 Running around all day, Jake soaked his tired feet
                                      (Jake is now running around all day)
 
Ego
egotism
You are focusing more on yourself than the topic. Focus on your topic.
Ex
examples
Examples are an excellent way to support a MI. They provide concrete proof.
FD
follow direction
You are not doing what has been asked.
Points will be deducted.
Read the instruction carefully. For the best results, do what is asked.
Fg
sentence
fragment
A complete sentence has a Subject (whatever is being written about) & Predicate (what the subject is doing or the circumstances around it). A fragments is missing a subject or predicate or both.
example of FG
The big car which was racing down the street and swerving at a fast pace
    subject only      (needs predicate - what did it do?)
correction
The big car which was racing down the street and swerving at a fast pace almost hit the big oak tree.
       subject                                                                                           predicate
FL
figurative language
Stylish writing to maintain reader interest and make writing vivid.
Figurative Language (click link for more info)
FOAS
focus on accurate sentences
This writing exhibits too many sentence errors that hinder a better grade.
All Codes abbreviations are explained on this CODE SHEET with examples and corrections.
The most common errors are:
COM = Comma error (missing or not needed)
 CSP = Comma Spliced Sentence 
   DM = Dangling Modifier
   FG = Fragment
mpm = Misplaced Modifier
 PRO = pronoun error
   RO = Run -on Sentence
   SS = Sentence Sense   
  S-V = Subject + Verb do not agree
   VS = verb shift
    VT= verb tense
    W = wordiness
GMOOYW
get me out of your writing
Too much second person (use of the word YOU)
You = the reader. Do not write about the reader. Essays using 2nd person when the assignment requires 3rd person writing will have points deducted.. Don't do it.
You (click link for info) person
GR
Grammatical Requirements

Students in Eng 121 must demonstrate competency in English grammar. Writing with continued sentence errors\inaccuracies will severely reduce an otherwise good grade.
 
What you are expected to know
Parts of Speech
  • nouns
  • pronouns
  • verbs
  • adverbs
  • conjunction
  • preposition
  • interjections
  •  sentences
Clauses
  • MC (Main Clauses)
  •  DC (Dependant Clauses)
  • PP (prepositional
  •  Phrases)
Avoid common sentence errors
(codes on the glossary)
  •  RO (run-on sentences)
  • CSP (comma spliced sentences)
  • S-V (subject verb does not agree)
  •  VT (shift in verb tense)
  • PRO (pronoun error)
  • MPM (misplaced modifiers
  •  DM dangling modifiers
  • PL (use of plurals)
  •  SS (sentence doesn't make any sense)
  • W (unnecessary wordiness)
  • Pct (punctuation)
To learn about  grammatical requirement and how to correct errors see:

The Glossary is divided into 3 parts:
parts of speech
clauses
codes = these are abbreviations that appear on written work (usually to indicate a sentence error) 
   This is something you must address for future writing.
   example: RO = run-on sentence) That means you re incorrectly writing a run-on sentence.
    Look up the "Code - RO" in the Glossary; there will be an explanation of a run-on sentence,
    examples, and how to not make the same error again. 

 

 

Grabber This is a way of getting readers interested in reading an essay.
Introductions (click link for info)
 
Improperly
labeled

 
The file submitted was labeled incorrectly. Incorrectly labeled files are not downloaded because they create much confusion. They overwrite other files and often interfere with the download process. If you would like your assignment read and graded, send me an email. In the email include the assignment of which you refer, the date you submitted it, and the name you gave the file. When time permits, I will try to locate and grade it. Next time, read and follow the submission directions to avoid this problem that is a nuisance for BOTH of us.
Improperly
submitted files
All assignments (except for Message Boards) must be submitted in MS Word 907 or higher. Any other format cannot be graded.
If you would like your assignment read and graded, cut & past your assignment into an email and send it too me. Be sure to include in the "Subject" line of the email your section and reason for the email.  When time permits, I will try to locate and grade it. Next time, read and follow the submission directions to avoid this problem that is a nuisance for BOTH of us
IND
Indent new paragraphs
When beginning a new paragraph indent several spaces - this indicates to the reader that you are starting to explore a new MI.
IF
inappropriate
familiarity
It is not appropriate to refer to an author by a first name; use the last name.
Intro
introduction
The beginning of an essay must get reader interest and usually presents the THESIS.
Introductions (click link for info)
KIS
keep it simple
You are having trouble writing accurate sentences because you are addling too much or write confusing sentences. Focus on accurate sentences. Have a clear subject and clear predicate.
SS (click link for info)
MB
message board
Assignments indicated (MB) are to be done on the message board.
How to submit message board assignments (click link for more info)
MC
main clause
MC = Subject + verb = complete thought
ex: Robert left school.
     subject  verb
clauses (click link for more info)
MI
main idea
A paragraph should have only one MI, and that one MI should clearly support the Essay (if it is part of an essay)The ONE controlling idea of a paragraph.
Paragraph = a group of sentences that supports ONE MI

Main Idea
(click link for info)
MPM
misplaced
modifier
error

A modifier is a word or group of words that enhances the meaning of a noun. If it is in the wrong part of a sentence, it is MISPLACED. It ends up modifying the wrong noun.

The word directly following a modifying phrase or word is what is being modified.

example 1 MPM
Smashed against the pole, Joe saw his car.
 modifying phrase              N (object) - (not accurate - Joe is not smashed against the pole)
correction: Place the modifying phrase near the object it is modifying
ex: I saw my car smashed against the pole (accurate - the car is smashed against the pole)
or
ex: Smashed against the pole my car was visible.  (accurate - the car is smashed against the pole)

example 2 of MPM
nearly gained10 pounds last semester.
modifying word
You are telling the reader that you almost gained......  (not accurate - you did gain)
correction: Place the Modifying phrase near the object it is modifying.
ex: I gained nearly 10 pounds last semester. (close to 10 pounds - that is accurate)

example 3 of MPM
Joe saw a large bear looking through his binoculars. (not accurate - bears do not look through binoculars)
                               
modifying phrase 
correction: Place the Modifying phrase near the object it is modifying.
ex:
Looking through my binoculars, Joe saw a large bear. (accurate - Joe is looking through his binoculars)
 

MW
missing word
There is a word missing.
It could be an article or preposition which usually precedes a noun.
ex:
incorrect: The second story explains the relationship siblings (missing a preposition)
   correct: The second story explains the relationship between siblings
incorrect: My cousin went to library to study. (missing an article)
   correct: My cousin went to the library
MWH
more would help
What you did was very sparse and not enough to sustain and essay. This usually applies to Brain Storming. It is important to gather a lot of info, ideas, statistics, details, sensory details, cases, & anything that will help you create MIs for your essay. Also Development in the paragraphs should come from the Brainstorm activity. Do more!
NonSeq
non sequitar
does not follow
Either a sentence is not making sense because one part does not seem to logically follow a first part, or a sentence does not sensibly follow a prior sentences.
ex: After the big game we went out for pizza; which made me very sleepy.
     (going out for pizza did not make your sleepy)
correction: After the big game we all went out for pizza. I ate too much, and by the time I got home, I was very sleepy.
 
NOT
not on topic
This writing assignment does not address the prompt provided. It does not focus on a topic for this assignment.
NP
new paragraph
When beginning a NEW PARAGRAPH indent several spaces or skip a line. This indicates to a reader that a new MI is coming.
NSR
no score recorded
No score has been put in the grade book probably for 1 of 3 reasons:
1.The assignment was not correctly labeled - I do not know who wrote it, or I cannot tell what it is I am reading.
   (The assignment must be labeled as instructed, or  I will not know how to grade it or where to put the grade!)
2. A name on the assignment does not appear n my roster.
   (Your name, the one you registered with, is on my roster, must appear on the top of all work.)
3. The assignment was not done as instructed.
   (wrong pages read, incorrect writing, etc.....)
If there is another reason, it will usually be noted on the assignment
The student who did it receives a "0"because no grade has been given. Campus Cruiser automatically converts a "0" to an "F

To correct this problem & possibly get a grade
Notify me (Prof. B) immediately with the following information.
Name, Section, Assignment, NSR#
ex:
Name:  Mary Smith
Section: IN1
Assignment: Shorter Writing 1
NSR2

also see: anonymous

I will get to it when I have time - keep checking your grades to be sure it appears.

Note:
*
An NSR designated assignment must be addressed in a timely manner, or it may not be accepted.
*
Because of the timely nature and content of some assignments, some NSR assignments may not be accepted.
* If this problem persists, except that I will stop accepting this type of incorrectly labeled or done work
 

NSW
no such word

The word you are using is not a word in the English language.  

example 1of NSW
I have alot of work to do, so I am kinda busy today.
explanation
alot is not a word - it is 2 words: a lot.
kinda is not a word - it is 2 words: kind of
correction:
I have a lot of work to do, so I am kind of busy today.
             
example 2 of NSW
I'm gonna go to college after I finish highschool.
explanation
gonna is not a word - it is 2 words: going to.
highschool is not a word - it is 2 words: high school
correction:
I'm going to go to college after I finish high school.

example 3 of NSW
Leon shoulda come with us last nite
explanation
shoulda is not a word - it is 2 words: should hav
nite is not a word - you mean night
correction:
Leon should have come with us last night

OMI
one MI per paragraph
A paragraph should have only one MI (Main Idea) The remainder of the paragraph should support through development  of that ONE MI.
A MI (an abstract statement) cannot be supported by another MI (abstract statement). Learn development .
O-O-I
order of ideas
Order of Ideas (click link for info)
Pct
punctuation
error
Use punctuation correctly.
Statement . = A well punctuated sentence is understandable.
Question  ? =  How am I supposed to remember all these rules of grammar?
Exclamation ! = Look out for that car!
Command .  = Get good seats for the play.
Quotation " " = Bob said, "I really enjoyed that play."
Person The term "Person" determines the perspective of the writer. There are 3 perspectives a write can choose from:
1st = about the writer (I, me)
2nd = about the reader (you)
3rd = about everything and everyone else in the entire world (he, she, it)

Most college writing should be in 3rd person because that is what students are learning and should be writing about. Students will for the most part not be asked to write about themselves nor the reader. They will be asked to write about course content (3rd person). The 3 "Persons" and how to correct improper "Person" are explained as follows:

1st Person
Definition

First person is the person speaking about the events in a sentence. Usually the focus is on the speaker(s).
Examples

I walked 30 miles to the village.
(In this sentence the person is talking to someone, the person is telling someone the story, the person is speaking.)
Having being separated at birth, we talked for hours and hours.
(In this sentence the person is talking to someone, this person is telling someone their story, the person is speaking.)
My dog is sick.
(In this sentence, the person is telling someone, what happened, the person is speaking)
Disgusted by the cook's coughing we left the restaurant.
(In this sentence the person is telling the story, the person is speaking, the person is speaking of an event.)

First Pronouns
I, we, me, us, my, mine, our, and ours

Here is an example of first person in a passage from a story entitled Survival at Sea by Ariane Randall;
My trip to a resort in Haiti began at New York's La Guardia Airport, two weeks after my fourteenth birthday... While waiting around, I met Anna Rivera and Delia Clarke... I had a great time during my week in Haiti, water skiing, snorkeling, swimming, and sun tanning, things I don't get to do much in New York City.

Re-focusing 1st person to 3rd person
First  person is not often used in college writing. Students are asked to write about subjects being studied, not themselves. To keep out of first person, try to focus on the event or noun which is being written about, not the person doing or experiencing the action. Below are some sentences written in the first person, and how to put them (re-focus) to be 3rd person writing.
EX:
First person
I love the food at Big Jim's luncheonette. The Jane, my favorite waitress, gives me extra whipped cream on my pie. I always give her a big tip. (the focus is on the writer- not the topic that should be written about)
Re-focused to be 3rd person
Big Jim's has the best food around. Jane, the most popular waitress, is eager to please by doling out lot of whipped cream on the pie servings, and in return, patrons are happy to give her extra big tips. (the focus is on Big Jim's and Jane -the topic that should be written about)
First person
When studying, I find it is best to do it in the morning. I am usually more awake, and my mind is clear and ready to learn.
(the focus is on the writer- not the topic that should be written about)
Re-focused to be 3rd person
Studying is best done in the morning when the mind is more awake, clear, and ready to learn.
 (the focus is on Studying -the topic that should be written about)
 
2nd Person
Definition
Second person is the person being talked (spoken) to.
Second person is the reader - NOT the writer!

Examples

You walked 30 miles to the village?
(In this sentence the person is being spoken to by someone else.)
Because the two of you were separated at birth, you spent hours and hours talking.
(In this sentence the person is being spoken to by someone else)
What happened, is your dog sick?
(In this sentence the person is being spoken to by someone else.)

Here are more sentences in the second person.
Wow! Look at how much you have grown.
When do you go to sleep?
You did such a good job at painting the house.

2nd Person Pronoun
you, your, yours

Re-focusing 2nd person to 3rd person
Second person (YOU) is often used incorrectly. To avoid this common and inaccurate error, try to focus n the event or noun of which is being written about, not the person doing or experiencing the action. Below are some sentences that are incorrectly written in the second person, and how to fix (re-focus) the sentence.
EX:
inaccurate second person
To learn how to operate a fork lift, you must first get your operator's license, and then you need to pass a Class A operator's test. (the focus is on the reader- not the topic that should be written about)
Re-focused to be 3rd person
An operator's license and passing the Class A operator's test is needed for anyone interested in becoming a fork lift operator. (the focus is on the operator's license- the topic that should be written about)
inaccurate second person

When Larry went to New York, he was very vigilant because you never know when something dangerous can happen.
(you in this example referees to the reader)
Re-focused to be 3rd person
When Larry went to New York, he was very vigilant because it can be dangerous.
(the focus is on New York)

For more help with inappropriate use of YOU see: you
 
3rd Person
Definition
Third person also known as the third person objective point of view it is when a person or thing is being talked (spoken) about. It is everything in the world except the writer or the reader.

Important note
Most college writing is in 3rd person.
As a college student, you will be asked to write about: Literature, Biology, Psychology, History, etc..........course content.
You will most likely not be asked to write about yourself (1st person) or the reader (2nd person)
It is important to understand and be able to write in 3rd person.

Examples

She walked 30 miles to the village.
(The person is being talked about)
Having been separated at birth, they talked for hours and hours.
(The people are being talked about)
Their dog is sick.
(The animal is being talked about)

Here are more sentences in the third person.
He left dinner without a word.
The scary Lion sat on top of the rocks and roared. (The thing which in this case is the lion, is being spoken about.)
The old man gave them the tickets.
With much hesitation they approached the dark house.
The children ran into the house because their clothes were all soiled.

All nouns are in the third person;
cat, dog, school, tree, car, Uncle Ted, Mr. Kennedy, Bob's new car, the little red haired girl in the corner etc......

Here is an example of third person from a book entitled; Wicked by Gregory Maguire;
Frex was more concerned for Melena than she knew. He stopped at the first Fisherman's hut he saw and spoke with the man at the half-door. Could a woman or two spend the day and if needed the night with Melena? It would be kindness. Frex nodded with a wince of gratitude, acknowledging without words that Melena was not a great favorite in these parts.

3rd Person Pronouns
he, she, it, him her, his, hers, its, they, them, their, and theirs
 
Mixing Persons & pronouns & how to refocus\fix
Stay in one person
ex: Mixed and improperly used pronouns
I enjoy an occasional trip to the Queen's Arms pub in Manhattan. They treat you well but because they are often crowded.
(first person)                                                                                                      (They is plural and cannot be used to replace the Queen's Arms singular)  
 you need to make a reservation if you want to get a table.
(2nd person)                         (2nd person)

Corrections & refocus to 3rd person
The Queen's Arms in Manhattan is a very enjoyable yet crowded pub. To get a table, reservation are often required.

PL
plural
singular
error
The word needs to be plural, or a plural needs to be a singular.

Singular = one item
   When writing about ONE item use the singular.
  
ex: friend (Joe is my friend.)
                              one person

Plural = more than one - usually needs an "S" at the end.
  
ex: friends (Mom gave my friends and me cookies and milk.)
                                   
several people
POS
parts of speech

 


parts of speech

 
Pos
possessive
error

Shows ownership - may have been omitted or used in place of a plural.

Singular Possessive = ownership by one = apostrophe goes before the "s"
Incorrect
I went to Bobs house. (plural = several guys named Bob - missing an apostrophe)
   this is plural - not possessive)
Correct
I went to Bob's house (the house that belongs to Bob)
           (possessive)

Plural possessive  = ownership by more than one = apostrophe goes after the "s"
Incorrect
This is my parent's house
    (the house belongs to both parents not just one)
Correct
This is my parents' house
    (the house belongs to both parents).
 

 Pro
pronoun error

Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns.
They must agree with the antecedent, (the noun they are taking the place of in Gender, Number, & Case.

  Gender: (male, female)
    ex: Jason liked Mary so much that he asked her for a date.
           male        female                  male       female

  Number (singular pronoun for singular noun; plural pronoun for plural noun
     ex: I must go to the mall early this Saturday because it is having a sale on camping equipment.  
                                singular                                  singular
     ex:: The team practiced diligently won its game.
                singular                              singular
      ex: The boys on the team practiced diligently and won their game.
                  plural                                                      plural possessive
      ex: Someone called you last night and left his phone number.
              singular                                      singular
      ex: Children must be taught manners, so they grow up to be polite..
             plural                                            plural  

Case (subjective or objective)

 Pronouns Subjective
Case
Objective
Case
Possessive
Case
Singular
(one)
I me my
you you your
he/she/it him/her/it his/her/its
who whom whose
Plural
(more than one)
we us our
you you your
they them their

Subjective case = used as subjects of a sentence or a Main Clause (MC)  (I, you, he, she , it, who, we, you, they)
                          ex: Conrad and she went to the movies.
                               subject      subject of sentence
                          ex: Because it  is hot outside, May and she stayed indoors by the air conditioner. 
                                                                             subject of the MC
                          ex: Kenny and I had a great time at the movies
                                subject    subject of sentence 

 Objective Case = not subject (me, you, him, her, it, whom, us, you, them)
                            ex: Sam gave his baseball tickets to us because he couldn't attend the game
                            this is subject                           not subject (object receives)
                            ex: Larry sat next to Nancy and me at the presentation.
                               this is subject                   not subject (object receives)                

 Some common pronoun errors with corrections
                                                                            

             Incorrect: I must go to the mall early Saturday because they are having a sale.
                                             (one mall = singular noun)            (they = plural pronoun)
            Correct: I must go to the mall early this Saturday because it is having a sale on camping equipment.
                                     (one mall = singular noun)               (it = singular pronoun)

              Incorrect: The team practiced diligently and won their game.
                     (one team = singular noun)             (their = plural  pronoun
                Correct: The team practiced diligently and won its game
                        (one team = singular noun)           (its = singular pronoun

              Incorrect: Someone is on the phone, and they want to talk to you.
                              (someone= singular noun)     (they = plural pronoun)

              Correct: Someone is on the phone, and she wants to talk to you.
                           (someone= singular noun)     (she = singular pronoun)

               Incorrect: It is important to teach a child manners so that they will grow up to be polite.
                                                       (a child = singular noun)   (they = plural pronoun)
                 Correct:
It is important to teach children manners so that they will grow up to be polite.
                                                     (children = plural noun)            (plural pronoun)  

               Incorrect: A parent is important because they instill values and morals in their children.
                              (a parent = singular noun)    (they plural pronoun)               (their plural pronoun)
                 Correct: Parents is important because they instill values and morals in their children.
                             (parents = plural noun)       (they plural pronoun)               (they plural pronoun)

               Incorrect: Conrad and her went to the movies.
                               (her is objective = used to receive - not be a subject)
                  Correct: Conrad and she went to the movies
                               (Conrad and she = subject of the sentence).

               Incorrect: Kenny and me went to the movies.
                               (me is objective = used to receive - not be a subject)
                  Correct: Conrad and I went to the movies
                               (Conrad and I = subject of the sentence).

               Incorrect: Kenny and went to the movies with Bob and I
                               (Kenny = subject)                              ( I is only used for subject - not to receive)
                  Correct: Kenny and went to the movies with Bob and me
                              (Kenny = subject)                               ( me is objective - receives)

               Incorrect: Larry sat next to Nancy and I at the concert.
                               (Larry = subject)            ( I is only used for subject - not to receive)
                 Correct: Larry sat next to Nancy and me at the concert.
                              (Kenny = subject)          ( me is objective - receives)

              

 NPS
not
parallel
structure

Parallel Structure

You have not used parallel structure in a sentence.

Parallel structure means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance. This can happen at the word, phrase, or clause level. The usual way to join parallel structures is with the use of coordinating conjunctions such as "and" or "or."

Words and Phrases

With the -ing form (gerund) of words:

Parallel:
Mary likes hiking, swimming, and bicycling.

With infinitive phrases:

Parallel:
Mary likes to hike, to swim, and to ride a bicycle.
OR
Mary likes to hike, swim, and ride a bicycle.

(Note: You can use "to" before all the verbs in a sentence or only before the first one.)

Do not mix forms.

Example 1

Not Parallel: 
Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle.

Parallel: 
Mary likes hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle.

Example 2

Not Parallel: 
The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and in a detailed manner.

Parallel: 
The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and thoroughly.

Example 3

Not Parallel: 
The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner, and his motivation was low.

Parallel: 
The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner, and lacked motivation.

Clauses

A parallel structure that begins with clauses must keep on with clauses. Changing to another pattern or changing the voice of the verb (from active to passive or vice versa) will break the parallelism.

Example 1

Not Parallel: 
The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and to do some warm-up exercises before the game.

Parallel: 
The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game.

— or —

Parallel: 
The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, not eat too much, and do some warm-up exercises before the game.

Example 2

Not Parallel: 
The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and that questions would be asked by prospective buyers. (passive)

Parallel: 
The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting,that there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, andthat prospective buyers would ask him questions.

Lists After a Colon

Be sure to keep all the elements in a list in the same form.

Example 1

Not Parallel: 
The dictionary can be used to find these: word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and looking up irregular verbs.

Parallel: 
The dictionary can be used to find these: word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and irregular verbs.

Proofreading Strategies to Try:

  • Skim your paper, pausing at the words "and" and "or." Check on each side of these words to see whether the items joined are parallel. If not, make them parallel.
  • If you have several items in a list, put them in a column to see if they are parallel.
  • Listen to the sound of the items in a list or the items being compared. Do you hear the same kinds of sounds? For example, is there a series of "-ing" words beginning each item? Or do you hear a rhythm being repeated? If something is breaking that rhythm o

 

QUOTES

Using Quotation Marks

The primary function of quotation marks is to set off and represent exact language (either spoken or written) that has come from somebody else. The quotation mark is also used to designate speech acts in fiction and sometimes poetry. Since you will most often use them when working with outside sources, successful use of quotation marks is a practical defense against accidental plagiarism and an excellent practice in academic honesty. The following rules of quotation mark use are the standard in the United States, although it may be of interest that usage rules for this punctuation do vary in other countries.

The following covers the basic use of quotation marks. For details and exceptions consult the separate sections of this guide.

Direct Quotations

Direct quotations involve incorporating another person's exact words into your own writing.

1. Quotation marks always come in pairs. Do not open a quotation and fail to close it at the end of the quoted material.

2. Capitalize the first letter of a direct quote when the quoted material is a complete sentence.

Mr. Johnson, who was working in his field that morning, said, "The alien spaceship appeared right before my own two eyes."

3. Do not use a capital letter when the quoted material is a fragment or only a piece of the original material's complete sentence.

Although Mr. Johnson has seen odd happenings on the farm, he stated that the spaceship "certainly takes the cake" when it comes to unexplainable activity.

4. If a direct quotation is interrupted mid-sentence, do not capitalize the second part of the quotation.

"I didn't see an actual alien being," Mr. Johnson said, "but I sure wish I had."

5. In all the examples above, note how the period or comma punctuation always comes before the final quotation mark. It is important to realize also that when you are using MLA or some other form of documentation, this punctuation rule may change.

When quoting text with a spelling or grammar error, you should transcribe the error exactly in your own text. However, also insert the term sic in italics directly after the mistake, and enclose it in brackets. Sic is from the Latin, and translates to "thus," "so," or "just as that." The word tells the reader that your quote is an exact reproduction of what you found, and the error is not your own.

Mr. Johnson says of the experience, "It's made me reconsider the existence of extraterrestrials."

6. Quotations are most effective if you use them sparingly and keep them relatively short. Too many quotations in a research paper will get you accused of not producing original thought or material (they may also bore a reader who wants to know primarily what YOU have to say on the subject).

Indirect Quotations

Indirect quotations are not exact wordings but rather rephrasing or summaries of another person's words. In this case, it is not necessary to use quotation marks. However, indirect quotations still require proper citations, and you will be committing plagiarism if you fail to do so.

Mr. Johnson, a local farmer, reported last night that he saw an alien spaceship on his own property.

Many writers struggle with when to use direct quotations versus indirect quotations. Use the following tips to guide you in your choice.

Use direct quotations when the source material uses language that is particularly striking or notable. Do not rob such language of its power by altering it.

Martin Luther King Jr. believed that the end of slavery was important and of great hope to millions of slaves done horribly wrong.

The above should never stand in for:

Martin Luther King Jr. said of the Emancipation Proclamation, "This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice."

Use an indirect quotation (or paraphrase) when you merely need to summarize key incidents or details of the text.

Use direct quotations when the author you are quoting has coined a term unique to her or his research and relevant within your own paper.

When to use direct quotes versus indirect quotes is ultimately a choice you'll learn a feeling for with experience. However, always try to have a sense for why you've chosen your quote. In other words, never put quotes in your paper simply because your teacher says, "You must use quotes."

RED
redundant

You are repeating yourself. Don't do it.

          ex: My goal is to be successful and  to achieve  my highest goal.
              be successful                       be successful    be successful
correction: My goal is to be successful.

          ex: My girlfriend Melinda is my best friend. She is at the top of my list.
                    (someone at the top of your list IS your best friend.
correction: My girlfriend Melinda is my best friend.     

      ex:  I rely on Melinda to help me when I need a shoulder to cry on. She is really dependable, and I go to her for help
                        dependable                                                            dependable                       dependable           
 correction: I rely on Melinda
 

REL
relevance

The relevance of what you are saying is not clear (how does it relate?)
How does this sentences within this paragraph support the topic sentence of the paragraph?
How does this paragraph (or topic sentence-MI of the paragraph) support the Thesis?
ex: My brother is very smart (MI of a paragraph)
       He has a 4.0 GPA in college. (ok - proves he is smart)
       He can learn new computer programs quickly. (ok - proves he is smart)
       He is a great football player. (REL - is not relevant - does not prove\support that he is smart)

 

REM
read my emails
Because you are doing exactly what I warn against doing in my feedback emails, it seems evident that you are not reading them. I take lots of time composing these emails to help you write better. I expect that you read them completely with the same intent. Serious points will be deducted from this assignment.
RO
run-on
sentence
error
RO = 2 or more (MC) Main clause in the same sentence without proper punctuation or coordination.
Before learning RO
, see: clauses.  Also see Parts of Speech for cc & sc.
 
ex of RO : John loves Stephanie  he thinks she is a wonderful woman.                                            
                            MC                               MC

Corrections 
using proper punctuation and\or coordination with 2 or more MC in one sentence..
You can use as many MC in a sentence as you want as long as you punctuate and\or coordinate them correctly.

MC,cc MC.
 John loves Stephanie , but she doesn't love him.
             
MC              ,  cc            MC.
 

DC , MC. = Because John loves Stephanie, she is flattered.
                                   DC                         ,   MC.

MC DC = John loves Stephanie because she is a wonderful woman.
                                   MC         DC.

MC ; MC = John loves Stephanie; he is going to ask for her hand in marriage.
                                    MC       ;     MC.

MC;sc,MC. = John loves Stephanie; however, she doesn't love him.
                                  MC            ;     sc    ,          MC.

*NOTE -a similar sentence confusion is joining 2 (MC) main clauses with a comma - creating a Comma Spliced Sentence.

SD
sensory detail
good technique = developing writing using our 5 senses to help a reader experience what is being written about.
 Appeals to humans 5 senses (the way we experience and learn about the word)

see, hear, taste, touch , smell
SD Sensory Detail
These are details that appeal to a reader's 5 senses: see, hear, taste, smell, touch. Including such detail makes reading come to life.
Humans experience and learn from life ONLY through these 5 senses - there is no other way - so appeal to them.
ex:
Dull\abstract\uninteresting sentence
Yesterday was a very nice day = not much for a reader to: see, hear, taste, smell, touch. Nice = abstract.
Adding some SD makes it much better.
Yesterday the sun shone brightly at around 80 degrees, and the gentle breeze wafting through the beautiful red and bright green peach trees gave off an intoxicating sweet peach aroma.
Dull\abstract\uninteresting sentence

My dog Chester is very cute. = not much for a reader to: see, hear, taste, smell, touch. cute = abstract.
Adding some SD makes it much better
Chester's floppy ears covered in shaggy white fur cover his bright blue inquisitive eyes. His tail is like a corkscrew, and his long low white fur covered torso makes him look more like a mop than a dog.
Sexist
sexist language

Using masculine pronouns\nouns\references when speaking of men and women, and visa-versa.
 
         ex: You must teach a child manners so as an adult he will be polite.             
                                                                       (only refers to males)
            
ex: You must teach a child manners so as an adult she will be polite.             
                                                                         (only refers to females)
correction: You must teach children manners so as adults they will be polite.
                                                                          (refers to all children)

Slang
informal verbiage

This is not formal and/or often acceptable language. It may detract from credible meaning.
           
ex: This test sucks.
                         (overused, trite, dull, street slang)
        better: This test is difficult and causing me considerable distress.
                       (exhibits good vocabulary & mature thoughts)
           ex: She lost her temper and yelled at her kids
                                                       
 (kids are really baby goats - this is a slang term for children)
        better: She lost her temper and yelled at her children

SS
sentence
sense
error
The sentence does not make any sense usually because:
The subject is not clear or missing
The predicate is not clear or missing
It is not punctuated or coordinated correctly

A sentence is a group of word that = ONE COMPLETE THOUGHT

It must have

 a clear subject = who or what is about
   simple
subject = one or more words
     ex:
the man
   more complete
subject = simple subject + modifiers
     ex: The
tall man in the back of the room  (this entire group of word is one subject)
           
a clear predicate = makes an assertion, shows an action by the subject\topic
   simple
predicate = one or more verbs
     ex:
talks
   more complete
predicate = simple predicate + modifiers
     ex:
talks incessantly and with anybody nearby  (this entire group of word is one predicate)
                   
subject + predicate  = complete sentence
simple sentence
  ex:
The man talks.
more complete sentence
  ex: The
tall man in the back of the room
talks incessantly with anybody nearby.

A sentence may have:    (simple = 1     compound = 2 or more)

simple subject + simple predicate
  
ex:
John ran

simple subject + compound predicate
  
ex: John
ran, jumped, then rested.

compound subject + simple predicate
   ex:
John, Bill, and Frank ran.


compound subject + compound predicate
 ex: John, Bill, and Frank ran, jumped, then rested.

There are several types of sentence.
see: Clauses before attempting to understand the types of sentences.
       (
MC = main clause    DC = dependant clause)

Simple Sentence
   One MC
   ex:
John ran.

Complex Sentence
   May also have more a
DC.
       
 Because John ran, Sally did not. (note comma usage)
   
     Sally did not because John ran.

Compound Sentence
   2 or more
MC (must be punctuated and coordinated properly) see:
   ex:
John ran, but Sally did not.
        
John ran; Sally did not.
        John ran; however, Sally did not.

Complex\Compound Sentence
   2 or more
MC + at least one DC (note punctuation)
 
  Because John ran, Sally did not, but she attended the game.

 

To be an effective interesting writer, as explained above:
Be sure to have clear subject & predicate.
Vary sentence types, lengths, and complexity as explained above.
Be sure to make it accurate and grammatically correct. (proper punctuation & coordination)

 

S-V
subject
verb
do not agree
error

Subjects and verbs must agree in number.
 
* In most sentences, usually either the subject or the verb will have an s

A singular subject must agree with a singular verb
   singular subjects usually do not have an S on the end
   singular verbs usually do have an S on the end.

ex: My baby cousin Tommy is a difficult child because he cries a lot.
            singular subject ( no s)                                       singular verb (s)

A plural subjects must agree with a plural verb
   plural subjects usually do have an S on the end
   plural  verbs usually do not have an S on the end

ex: My baby cousins are not difficult because they do not cry a lot:
         plural subject ( s)                                      plural verb (no s)                                                              

Syn
syntax
error
Sentence order is confused.
This is basically the same as a mpm (Misplaced modifier)
ex of syntax error:
Frank could see the Garden State Parkway flying in the plane. (the parkway was not flying in the plane)
correction
Flying in the plane, Frank could see the Garden State Parkway. (now Frank is flying in the plane)
(the word that comes after the modifying phrase is what is being modified)
Thesis Thesis is the Main Idea of the entire essay. The purpose of an essay is to support\prove the THESIS.
It is the conclusion a writer comes to about the topic.
Without a THESIS there is no reason to write or read an essay
(click these links for info)
diagram of an essay
how to make an essay outline
sample essay outlines
development

TP
transitional phrase
 
These are phrases that establish the order in an essay or paragraph

Coherence (Click link for info)

TS
topic sentence
 
Main Idea (click link for info)

Unity
 
Unity (click link for info) also see: OMI (one MI per paragraph)

VS
verb shift
error

 

VT
verb tense
error
 
 

An essay is basically exploring something in the PAST the PRESENT or the FUTURE.
Verbs for the most part must remain in the same tense as the essay.
Mixing (shifting)  tenses confuses a reader.

Verb Shift
Verbs tell when action in a sentence occur; going from one tense to another is confusing

ex 1 of shifting verbs
The boys want ice cream, and the girls wanted popcorn.
          present tense                         past tense
correction
The boys wanted ice cream, and the girls want popcorn.   
          past tense                               past tense
or
The boys want ice cream, and the girls want popcorn.   
        present tense                      present tense

ex 2 of shifting verbs               
She would water the plants and gave them food yesterday.
       past perfect                      past
correction
She watered the plants and gave them food yesterday.
        past                         past 

ex 2 of shifting verbs
I run about five miles every day, and then I ate a big mea
 present                                                  past
correction
I run about five miles every day, and then I eat a big meal
 present                                               present
or
 I ran about five mile yesterday and ate a big meal.
  past                                          past

Verb Tense
Verbs for the most part must remain in the same tense. Work on your verbs; you are confusing tenses
Most writing will probably be the SIMPLE PAST. Keep verbs consistent. To do otherwise confuses a reader.

  Past Present Future
Simple work worked  


 will work
 

Perfect had worked
 (something happened before something else)
* 2 actions needed  
have been working
 something may/may not continue)
* 2 actions needed


 will have been working
(something will occur before some other  event in the future)
* 2 actions needed
 

Progressive
was working 

 (continuing action)
 
am working
(continuing action)
will be working
     (continuing) action

 
Voice

This indicates a direct or indirect approach to writing.
There are 2 basic voices:

Active = Subject performs action   (direct - usually most effective way write)
    ex: The committee reached a decision

Passive = Subject receives action (indirect - usually less effective)
   
ex: The decision was reached by the committee.
 

 
W
wordiness

Don't be unnecessarily wordy. When the meaning is obvious, don't repeat or expand or add more words

Wordiness from unnecessary words

example 1 of W
I was driving my car on the road. Suddenly my passenger next to me got sick.
explanation
Cars are always driven on roads; no need to tell a reader this common knowledge.
Passengers = people in the car; no need to tell a reader what is obvious.   
correction

I was driving my car, and my passenger got sick.
example 2 of W
The sun brightly shone in the sky, and it was so beautiful, tears fell from my eyes.
explanation
The sun is always in the sky - it can't  be anywhere else
Tears always come from your eyes
correction
The brightly shining sun made me cry.


example 3 of W

In my opinion, this is the best movie I ever saw in my life. 
explanation
everything you say is your opinion (unless being documented)
everything that happens to you happens in your life - no need to saw it.
correction
This is the best movie I ever saw.

example 4 of W
To be honest,
explanation
Honesty is an assumption a reader assumes - Have you been lying to this point? Now you are finally going to be honest? If you have been lying all along, why should I believe you now?
correction
I don't like convertible cars very much.

More examples of wordiness from unnecessary words to avoid

In my opinion
In my honest opinion
In my life
At this time
In this society
In this crazy world
In this crazy world we live
In the real world

In the present day and age
In order to make it in the real world
In the real world
We as people
We as students
In this changing world
Its purpose and aim
Personally, I think

The world that we live in today
I guess what I'm saying
What I am trying to say
As I said earlier
Food to eat on the table
Honestly
Due to the fact
I think

 
Wordiness from redundancy (repetition)
Unnecessary repetition is not helpful and needlessly taxes the reader - does not foster interest.

example 1 of W (by redundancy)
I looked at the clock, and it was 3 am in the morning, and I could not get back to sleep.
explanation
3 am is always in the morning
correction
I looked at the clock, and it was 3 am, and I could not get back to sleep.

example 2 of W (by redundancy & extra unneeded words)
I didn't like the new scarf I recently purchased this morning, so I returned it back  to the store.
explanation
new: most things we buy in a store are new.
recently: this morning indicates recently - no need to repeat it.
back: return = bring it back - we never return anything forward.
to the store - since it was purchased, a reader can infer that it came from a store.
correction
I didn't like the scarf I purchased this morning, so I returned it.

More Wordiness in the form of redundant phrases to avoid

capitol building
circle around
baby calf
slippery slime
hollow tube
illegal poaching
old adage
NFL football team
merge together
sandwiched between
reflect back
very unique
strangled to death
successful escape

3 a.m. in the morning
old fossil
fellow countrymen
old geezer
new beginning
illegal scam
awkward predicament
appreciated in value
disappear from view
total extinction
violent explosion
knots per hour
temporary reprieve

 

hoist up
free of charge
recur again
enclosed herewith
excessive over harvesting
swivel around
new recruits
fellow colleagues
first priority
invited guests
completely satisfied
sink down
cluster together

 

Wordiness from trite, boring, overused, and tedious phrases.
T
ry not to tell a reader something that has been said many times before; be as original as possible. If you are going to wrote a well worn phrase you already heard many times before, there is good chance the reader read it too. Don't bore a reader with this type of tired writing.

example 1 of W (by trite, boring, overused, tedious, phrases)
Joe turned in his assignment late, but better late than never; he did not want to face the music from the instructor for another missed essay.
explanation
The 2 phrases underlined above have been used hundreds of time - think of something original.
possible correction
Joe turned in his assignment late and thought he was able to sneak it in under the nose of his instructor. He did not want to hear another scathing lecturer from his pompous instructor for another missed essay
.

More trite, boring, overused, tedious phrase to avoid

add insult to injury
better late than never
cool, calm, and collected
crushing blow
cut as a button
easier said than done
face the music
few and far between
green with envy
hard as a rock

hard headed

heavy as lead
hit the nail on the head
hour of need
moving experience
a needle in a haystack
point of pride
ripe old age
rude awakening
sadder but wiser

shoulder the burden
shoulder to cry on
sneaky suspicion
stand in awe
stand in my way
strong as an ox
thin as a rail
tried but true
wise old owl

More on Wordiness

 
WC
word choice
error

incorrect word (s) are being use
ex 1 of WC
I would of entered the race if only I could a gotten some free time to practice.
     wrong word                              wrong word
correction
I would have entered the race if only I could have gotten some free time to practice.          

ex 2 of WC
There parents past the exit on the highway.
pro needed    wrong word
correction
Their parents passed the exit on the highway.

ex 3 of WC
The whether was beautiful today; Frank couldn't decide weather or not to go swimming.
      wrong word                                                        wrong word
correction
The weather was beautiful today; Frank couldn't decide whether or not to go swimming.

ex 4 of WC
My pen is brand knew, and it costs only seventy five sense.  
                      wrong word                                    wrong word
correction
My pen is brand new, and it costs only seventy five cents

 

You
inappropriate
use of 2nd person
You  = the reader = 2nd person
You (the person now reading this) must learn to use this pronoun properly.

 

You: Avoiding 2nd person

You = the reader

It is a pronoun that refers to the reader.   It should be used only when specifically addressing the reader (almost never)

To avoid 2nd person focus on the subject of your sentence, not the reader

Incorrect: Even if you enter the theater after the movie begins, you will probably miss an important part.
                                (the reader)                                                                      (the reader)                                      
 
not accurate writing - the statement is not only about the reader - it is a general statement.
Better: Those entering the theater late will probably miss an important part.
           
(your real subject)

Below are some examples of incorrect usage of "You" and how to write more accurately

1.       Poor: On your first date you will be nervous and probably have butterflies in your stomach.
Better: First dates are nerve wracking experiences. Daters can have butterflies in their stomachs.

3.       Poor: While on a date you want to have the person interested in you throughout the night.
Better: Maintaining interest on a date is important if another is to happen
.

4.       Poor: Therefore, by following a few tips; you can make your date go well and possibly get another.
Better: Following these tip will no doubt insure another date and maybe an even a better one.

5.       Poor: The day of your date you need to plan your time wisely.
Better: Plan time wisely the day of the date.

6.       Poor: You must be ready on time.
Better: Be ready on time

7.       Poor: You also want your date to be attracted to you, so you must look your best.
Better: Dress well and pay attention to personal appearance to be attractive.

8.       Poor: While your appearance matters greatly, you must also smell good.
Better: While appearance matters, it is also advised to smell good. Keep it neutral.

9.       Poor: The key to survival when working at Daisy Summer Camp is never lose your cool.
 Better
: Remain cool when working at Daisy Summer Camp; that is the key to survival.

10.   Poor: Always remain calm and never blow your top.
Better: Remain calm and don't get over excited or easily annoyed.

11.   Poor: If they see you starting to get agitated, the campers will do whatever is bothering you more.
Better: Seeing a counselor agitated is an invitation for campers to increase their annoying behavior.

12.   Poor: They love getting a rise out of you.
Better: Campers love to get a rise out of a counselor.

13.   Poor: Another thing, you should never do is hit an officer. If you raise a hand to an officer, you will be arrested.
Better: Hitting an officer is very bad behavior and will probably result in an arrest.

=/=
not parallel

Verbs in a sentence are not in the same tense, form, and are not consistent.
ex of a no parallel sentence:
Many people get up early to jog, to observe nature, or are watching the sun come up.
correction
Many people get up early to jog, to observe nature, or to watch the sun come up.

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