RO = run on sentence. Wherever you see RO on your paper, that is where you are running
two complete thoughts together. This is incorrect writing and may confuse a reader. Next to the code is
a definition of a Run On sentence and examples of how to correct this grammatical error.
This is an error you need to correct for future writing.
If you find a link on the Internet that you feel is useful to understanding any code technique below, please let me
know, and I will
include it to this list. It will be much appreciated.
|Codes||Explanations of the codes & how to address them|
Adjective = used to modify a noun
ex: I ran a good race.
Adverb = modifies a verb & adjective. (it usually ends in ly.
Ex: I ran well yesterday.
Ex: I ran a really good race yesterday.
adv adj n
|abstract - concrete: click link for info|
Don't advertise - just do it
Ex: In conclusion I just feel that dogs make good pets
Better: Dogs make great pets.
Ex: As I have stated above, Americans are too dependent on cars.
Better: Americans are too dependent on cars.
Author's Point of View
When writing = what you (the author) is saying in a broad general way about your topic
When reading = what the author (the writer) is saying in a broad general way about the topic
Articles are used to introduce verbs. There are 2 basic article.
A = introduces nonspecific noun - any one -in when generally speaking
Ex: A cat is a good pet
The = introduces a specific noun - when our noun is not general
Ex: When I went to the school next to the candy store, I got lost
You could probably use more active voice.
Active voice = does action = usually the more direct and effective way to write
Ex: The committee voted on the bill.
Passive voice = receives action = usually less effective and direct
Ex: The bill was voted on by the committee.
This sentence or group of words is awkwardly constructed. It may have numerous errors that overlap or simply not have any meaning. There is probably a much better way to say it.
|Be Complete - this is not a completed assignment - for the best grades do all of the assignment - if you are unclear be sure to ask questions prior to submission.|
Capital Letters Usage
Capitals are used for:
∑ The first word of a sentence,
∑ Proper Nouns (Tom, Middlesex County College, Virginia)
|Coherence||making writing coherent: click link for info|
Commas separate items in a sentence to avoid confusion. There are specific ways to use commas correctly so thoughts do not run together. Note that unnecessary commas usage can confuse a reader.
Each bullet below illustrates how correctly use a comma.
∑ MC, cc MC
Bob ran, but Jane walked to the store. (note: the comma must precede the cc (but))
MC, cc MC
∑ DC, MC
Because I was late, I was not allowed to take the test. . (note: the comma goes after the DC)
DC , MC
∑ MC DC = No Comma
My cousin was very tired because he worked all day. (note: no comma after the MC)
∑ small, dingy, and cold room
∑ John, go to the store now!
∑ First, (only in beginning)
∑ Frank, the guy in the back row, constantly disrupts the class (nonessential phrase)
∑ Any student who doesn't do the work will fail. (no comma with necessary phrases)
∑ To do well on a test, you must study hard. (infinitive)
∑ Mary said, "Seth is a good guy."
∑ Mary lives at 427, Vette Avenue, Perth Amboy, New Jersey 07002
∑ Soon after, she left for the conference. (to separate main clause)
Coordinating Conjunction misuse -Coordinating Conjunctions
(CC) are those little words that are commonly used to join thoughts within
a sentence (and, but, so, for, nor, yet) They are meant to to do
just what their name implies, coordinate thoughts within a
sentence, not between them. To begin a sentence with a CC is
basically using them to join the sentence it begins with to the
sentence that came before it. This is not their purpose. Remember, a
sentence is one complete thought, so it you are going to join 2 of them;
it should be punctuated properly and in one sentence. (as I just did in
that sentence). This makes a much better complex thought.
My father is a tough man. And he is a good provider for our family.
(one complete thought) CC (one complete thought)
My father is a tough man, and he is a good provider for our family.
(one complete thought) , CC (one complete thought)
Clauses - components of a sentence.
There are 2 types you must be familiar with:
(MC) Main Clause = a group of words that has a subject + verb = complete thought
ex: Franklin won = complete thought
ex: The big gray cat took a long nap. = complete thought
(DC) Dependent Clause = a group of words that has a subject + verb = NO complete thought
ex: Because Franklin won = NO complete thought
ex: As the big gray cat took a long nap. = NO complete thought
|Conclusion||writing conclusions: click link for info|
Paragraphs should have a concluding sentence. If this code is near a paragraph, it is missing.
Comma Splice - you have joined two MC with a comma. This is basically the same error as a Run-on.
subject + verb = no complete meaning
ex: Because Robert went home
|DC,MC||missing comma between a Dependent clause and a Main Clause (see RO or CSP corrections for more help)|
|Development||developing writing: click link for info|
A group of words that is intended to modify something but doesn't.
ex: Running around all day, Jake's feet were tired.
(note: whatever follows the modifier is the object of it - Jake's feet were not Running around all day.)
Better: Running around all day, Jake soaked his tired feet.
(Jake is now running around)
You are focusing more on yourself than the topic. Focus on your topic.
You are not doing what is asked.
A complete sentence has a Subject (what ever is being written about) & Predicate (what the subject is doing or the circumstances around it).
A sentence fragment is missing either a subject or predicate or both.
This usually can be corrected by joining this group of words to the sentence before or after it.
ex: Because you see man young people with baggy clothing. It must be popular.
This is a dependant clause-fragment
Better: Because you see man young people with baggy clothing, it must be popular
Focus on Accurate Sentences
This writing exhibits
too many sentence errors that hinder a better grade.
PRO = pronoun error
COM = Comma error (missing or not needed)
S-V = Subject + Verb do not agree
DM = Dangling Modifier
Get Me Out of Your Writing
Too much second person (use of the word YOU)
click link for info
YOU = the reader NOT the writer.
|including writing that grabs a reader's attention in the introduction: click link for info|
|writing introductions: click link for info|
Keep it Simple
You are having trouble writing accurate sentences because you are addling too much. Focus on accurate sentences. Have a clear subject and clear predicate.
Subject + verb = complete thought
ex: Robert left school.
|MET||Metaphor (see figurative language)|
|MI||Main Idea: click link for info|
A group of modifying words not clearly related to that that which is supposed to be modified.
ex: Smashed against the pole, I saw my shiny new car.
(I am not smashed against the pole, the car is)
Better: I saw my shiny new car smashed against the pole
Better: Smashed against the pole my shiny new car was visible.
ex: Because he studied hard, John got nearly an A on the exam.
(he didn't nearly an A)
Better: Because he studied hard, John nearly got an A on the exam
ex: I saw a large bear looking through my binoculars.
(bears do not look through binoculars)
Better: Looking through my binoculars, I saw a large bear.
Missing Word: there is a word missing. It could be an article or
preposition which usually precedes a noun.
incorrect: The second story explains the relationship siblings (missing a preposition)
correct: The second story explains the relationship of siblings
incorrect: My cousin went to library to study. (missing an article)
correct: My cousin went to the library
This is not a Main Idea - it should be one.
See: MI for help.
Not on Topic
This writing (or part of it) does seem to address the topic choices you were offered. Focus more on a topic that responds to the writing prompt. More specifically addressing the topic results in better grades and easier writing experiences.
No Score Recorded
No score has been put in the grade book for probably one of 3 reasons:
1.The assignment was not correctly labeled - I do not know who wrote it, or I cannot tell what it is I am reading.
(The assignment must be labeled as instructed, or I will not know how to grade it or where to put the grade!)
2. A name on the assignment does not appear n my roster.
(Your name, the one you registered with, is on my roster, must appear on the top of all work.)
3. The assignment was not done as instructed.
(wrong pages read, incorrect writing, etc.....)
If there is another reason, it will usually be noted on the assignment
The student who did it receives a "0"because no grade has been given. Campus Cruiser automatically converts a "0" to an "F
To correct this problem & possibly get a grade
Notify me (Prof. B) immediately with the following information.
Name, Section, Assignment, NSR#
Name: Mary Smith
Assignment: Shorter Writing 1
I will get to it when I have time - keep checking your grades to be sure it appears.
* An NSR designated assignment must be addressed in a timely manner, or it may not be accepted.
* Because of the timely nature and content of some assignments, some NSR assignments may not be accepted.
* If this problem persists, except that I will stop accepting this type of incorrectly labeled or done work
No Such Word
The word you are using is not a word in the English language.
The underlined "words" below in the examples are not real words at all. Below are probably what you mean..
ex: I have alot of work to do, so I am kinda busy today.
a lot kind of
I'm gonna go to college after I finish highschool.
going to high school
He is the kinda student that gets good grades and shoulda passed the test.
kind of should have
A statement or conclusion that does not follow. How did you go form one sentence to the next? How did you go from one paragraph to the next?
|NP||New Paragraph needed|
Either missing or needs much work. Check it for comments.
|O-O-I||Oreder of Ideas|
Use punctuation correctly.
Statement . = A well punctuated sentence is understandable.
Question ? = How am I supposed to remember all these rules of grammar?
Exclamation ! = Look out for that car!
Command . = Get good seats for the play.
Quotation " " = Bob said, "I really enjoyed that play."
You either need a plural or you used a plural where one is not appropriate.
Shows ownership. You must place an apostrophe before the S to show ownership, or it just becomes plural.
Singular possessive = John's
ex: I borrowed John's pencil for the test. (note: without this apostrophe, you are saying 2 Johns)
Plural possessive = the girls'
ex: The girls' team won the game.
Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns.
They must agree with the antecedent (the noun they are replacing) as explained below
a male noun must be replaced with a male
ex: Jason was really impressed with Mary, so later in the day he asked her for a date.
(Jason = male noun) (Mary = female) (male pro) (female pro)
a plural noun must be replaced with a
(one mall = singular noun) (it = singular pronoun)
Incorrect: The team practiced diligently and won their game.
(one team = singular noun) (their = plural pronoun)
Correct: The team practiced diligently and won its game.
(one team = singular noun) (its = singular pronoun)
Incorrect: Someone is
on the phone, and they want to to talk to you.
Correct: Someone is on the phone, and she
wants to to talk to you.
Incorrect: It is important to teach a child manners so that they will grow up tobe polite.
(a child = singular noun) (they = plural pronoun)
Correct: It is important to teach children manners so that they will grow up to be polite.
(children = plural noun) (plural pronoun)
parent is important because they instill values and morals in
subjective pronouns are used as subjects
ex: Conrad and she went to the movies.
subject + she = subject of the sentence)
ex: Because it is hot outside, she stayed in doors by the air conditioner.
(she = subject of the Main Clause)
ex: Kenny and I had a great time at the movies.
(subject of the sentence)
ex: Bob went on a diet with my cousin and me.
(subject) (me = object, not the subject of the sentence)
ex: Sam gave his baseball tickets to us because he couldn't attend the game.
(sentence subject) (us = object, not a the subject)
ex: Larry sat next to Nancy and me at the presentation.
(sentence subject) me = object, not the subject)
ex: The girls were late for their manicure appointment.
ex: Mary was late for her manicure appointment.
You are repeating yourself. Don't do it.
Ex: My goal is to be successful. I want to achieve all I can. I will reach my highest goal.
be successful be successful be successful
Ex: My girlfriend Melinda is my best friend. She is always there for me.
I rely on her to help me when I need a shoulder to cry on. I like to be with her. She is
really dependable, and I go to her for help. My life is so much more difficult without her.
This all says the same thing. She is dependable and my best friend.
How does this sentence(s) within this paragraph support the topic sentence of the paragraph?
How does this paragraph (or topic sentence-MI of the paragraph) support the Thesis?
Run on or Comma
Ex: John loves Stephanie he thinks she is a wonderful woman. (Run On) Incorrect
Ex: John loves Stephanie, he thinks she is a wonderful woman (Comma Spliced (CSP)) Incorrect
MC , MC
Below are corrections
for RO & CSP and how to use clauses correctly
(note proper punctuation)
MC,cc MC. = John loves Stephanie , but she doesn't love him.
MC , cc MC
MC . MC. = Jon loves Stephanie. She doesn't love him.
MC . MC
DC , MC. = Because John loves Stephanie, she is flattered.
DC , MC
MC DC = John loves Stephanie because she is a wonderful woman.
MC ; MC = John loves Stephanie; he is going to ask for her hand in marriage.
MC ; MC.
MC;sc.MC. = John loves Stephanie; however, she doesn't love him.
MC; sc, MC.
Appealing to the senses (see, hear, feel, touch, taste)
Using masculine pronouns when speaking of men and women, and visa-versa.
Ex: You must teach a child manners so as an adult he will be polite.
(only refers to males)
Better: You must teach children manners so as adults they will be polite.
This is not formal and/or often acceptable language. It may detract form your meaning.
Ex: This test sucks.
better=Is difficult and bothersome.
Ex: She lost her temper and yelled at her kids.
(kids are baby goats) children = better
You have a singular noun linked to a plural verb or pronoun or visa-versa.
Ex: Donations of food and clothing helps the less fortunate.
Ex: The store is having a sale, and they are practically giving things away.
(singular) it is
This sentence doesnít have any sense to it. The subject and verb are not clear, or confused, or mixed up with modifiers, or a variety of errors exist that make no meaning.
Subject Verb Agreement
Subjects and verbs must agree.
Singular subjects have no s go with singular verbs have an s.
ex: Bob ex: jumps
ex: My baby cousin Tommy is a difficult child because he cries a lot.
singular subject ( no s) singular verb (s)
Plural subjects have an s go with plural verbs have no s.
ex: Girls ex: jump
ex: My twin cousins, Gail and Fay, are difficult children because they cry a lot.
plural subject plural verb
Syntax = sentence order is confused.
This is basically the same as a MPM (Misplaced modifier)
ex: Syntax error: Frank could see the Garden State Parkway flying in the plane.
Better: Flaying in the plane, Frank could see the Garden State Parkway.
|Thesis||writing a thesis: click link for info|
|TP||transitional phrase: click link for info|
|TS||topic sentence: click link for info|
|Unity||making writing unified: click link for more info|
Verbs for the most part must remain n the same tense. Mixing (shifting) tenses confuses a reader.
In the examples below the verbs should both be in the same tense. They are not.
Shifting Tenses : The boys want ice cream, and the girls wanted popcorn.
Better: The boys want ice cream, and the girls want popcorn.
Better: The boys wanted ice cream, and the girls wanted popcorn.
Shifting Tense: She would water the plants and gave them food yesterday.
past perfect past
Better: She watered the plants and gave them food yesterday.
Better: She would water the plants and would give them food.
past perfect past perfect
Shifting Tense: I run about five miles every day, and then I ate a big meal.
Better: I run about five miles every day, and then I eat a big meal
Better: I ran about five mile yesterday and ate a bit meal.
Verbs for the most part must remain in the same tense. Work on your verbs; you are confusing tenses.
Past Present Future
Simple work worked will work
Perfect had worked have been working will have been working
(before something else) (may/may not continue) (will occur before some other event)
Progressive was working am working will be working
(continuing) (continuing) (continuing)
Active = Subject performs action ( direct - usually most effective way write)
Es: The committee reached a decision.
Passive = Subject receives action (indirect - usually less effective)
Ex: The decision was reached by the committee.
Wordiness \ Trite worn out phrases \ Redundancy \ Over used language
Don't be unnecessarily wordy. When the meaning is obvious, don't say it.
ex of Wordiness: I was driving my car on the road. Suddenly my passenger next to me got sick.
where else? passenger is already in the car
Better: I was driving, and my passenger got sick.
ex of Wordiness: The sun brightly shone in the sky, and I got tan all over my body.
it is always in the sky where else?
Better: Because the sun was shining, I got tan.
Don't Advertise what you are going to do; just do it
ex: of Advertising: In conclusion, it seems apparent that cats make good pets..
Better: Cats make good pets.
click link for more info
Incorrect words are being use
Ex of incorrect word choice: I would of entered the race if only I could a got off from work.
Better I would have entered the race if only I could of got off from work.
Ex of incorrect word choice: There parents past the exit on the highway.
Better: Their parents passed the exit on the highway.
Ex of incorrect word choice: My pen is brand knew, and it costs only seventy five sense.
Better: My pen is brand new, and it costs only seventy five cents.
Ex of incorrect word choice: I have to right a term paper for my Science class
Better: I have to write a term paper for my Science class
|You||improper use of 2nd person: writing a thesis: click link for info|
not parallel sentence
usually verb inconsistencies
Many people get up early to jog, to observe nature, or watch the sun come up.